Hamilton's championship-leading Ferrari rival Sebastian Vettel, who has a 20-point advantage after nine of 20 races, qualified third on a drying track after steady drizzle throughout the morning.
The Mercedes driver was half a second quicker than Ferrari's second-placed Kimi Raikkonen and his time of one minute 26.600 seconds was so outrageously quick there were gasps before the crowd erupted.
"I always try to leave the best to last," the Briton told retired champion Jenson Button in post-qualifying interviews on the grid.
"I needed to make sure I got that lap in. I didn't do in the last race (in Austria) so I really made sure I saved it this weekend."
Vettel recognized Hamilton had been out of reach.3
"I think he owned the pole position today," said the German.
Hamilton still faced a nervous wait while stewards investigated an incident involving Frenchman Romain Grosjean, who complained he had been blocked by the Mercedes driver.
Mercedes F1 boss rebuffs fuming GrosjeanMercedes F1 boss rebuffs fuming Grosjean
Wolff defends Hamilton from 'unfair' criticismWolff defends Hamilton from 'unfair' criticism
They swiftly decided to take no further action, to Grosjean's evident disgust.
"I was impeded today. Maybe if it was another driver there would have been something," he fumed.
The Briton's mastery lit up an overcast afternoon and the pole was the 67th of his career and sixth of the season, giving him every chance of equaling Schumacher's record 68 before the August break.
The triple world champion has won the last three British Grands Prix and can equal the late Jim Clark's feat of four home wins in a row, and five in total, on Sunday.
Saturday ensured he has matched Clark's 50-year-old British record of five home pole positions.