Women make up about 29 per cent of ministers, state ministers, state secretaries and division heads in the current government, officials said in response to a parliamentary question.
This represents an increase of only 5 percentage points compared to 2014, under the previous administration.
The federal government's target is for men and women to have equal representation in leading roles by 2025.
The government is moving "in the right direction," but has "a long way to go to meet the target," the Family Ministry said.
There were 139 men and 57 women in leading roles across government, with only a few positions in the new coalition government as yet unfilled.