The first biotechnical collaboration between the two countries is aiming to test the effectiveness of a Cuban treatment for lung cancer to see whether it could be used for US patients.
Although still in the test stage, the CIMAvax-EGF treatment has made a lot of noise over the last few months, even before the announcement of this unprecedented partnership.
Various internet sites have claimed it's a miracle cure, but experts say the truth is more complex than that.
According to Orestes Santos, a researcher at Havana's molecular immunology center, rather than a vaccination, the treatment involves the "active immunology" of the so-called EGF, or epidermal growth factor, protein that stimulates cell growth.
Interested by their work, the Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, in Buffalo, New York, formed a partnership with the Cuban center during a US business mission to the island nation in 2015. That year the two Cold War foes restored diplomatic relations after decades of enmity.